In finance, a loan is the lending of money by one or more individuals, organizations, or other entities to other individuals, organizations etc. The recipient (i.e. the borrower) incurs a debt, and is usually liable to pay interest on that debt until it is repaid, and also to repay the principal amount borrowed.
The document evidencing the debt, e.g. a promissory note, will normally specify, among other things, the principal amount of money borrowed, the interest rate the lender is charging, and date of repayment. A loan entails the reallocation of the subject asset(s) for a period of time, between the lender and the borrower. he interest provides an incentive for the lender to engage in the loan. In a legal loan, each of these obligations and restrictions is enforced by contract, which can also place the borrower under additional restrictions known as loan covenants.
A loan is when you receive money from a friend, bank or financial institution in exchange for future repayment of the principal, plus interest. The principal is the amount you borrowed, and the interest is the amount charged for receiving the loan. Since lenders are taking a risk that you may not repay the loan, they have to offset that risk by charging a fee - known as interest.